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Pengertian public speaking

Postby Tujas В» 22.10.2019

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Technically speaking, a purpose can be defined as why something exists, how we use an object, or why we make something. For the purposes of public speaking, all three can be applicable.

Ever since scholars started writing about public speaking as a distinct phenomenon, there have been a range of different systems created to classify the types of speeches people may give. Aristotle talked about three speech purposes: deliberative political speech , forensic courtroom speech , and epideictic speech of praise or blame. A little more recently, St. Augustine of Hippo also wrote about three specific speech purposes: to teach provide people with information , to delight entertain people or show people false ideas , and to sway persuade people to a religious ideology.

All these systems of identifying public speeches have been attempts at helping people determine the general purpose of their speech. A general purpose The broad goal that someone has for creating and delivering a speech. These typologies or classification systems of public speeches serve to demonstrate that general speech purposes have remained pretty consistent throughout the history of public speaking.

Modern public speaking scholars typically use a classification system of three general purposes: to inform, to persuade, and to entertain. The first general purpose that some people have for giving speeches is to inform A general purpose designed to help audience members acquire information that they currently do not possess. Simply put, this is about helping audience members acquire information that they do not already possess.

Audience members can then use this information to understand something e. The most important characteristic of informative topics is that the goal is to gain knowledge. Notice that the goal is not to encourage people to use that knowledge in any specific way. When a speaker starts encouraging people to use knowledge in a specific way, he or she is no longer informing but is persuading.

In an informative speech, the purpose of the speech is to explain to your audience what the program is and how it works. If, however, you start encouraging your audience to participate in the vaccination program, you are no longer informing them about the program but rather persuading them to become involved in the program. One of the most common mistakes new public speaking students make is to blur the line between informing and persuading.

In fact, understanding and exchanging knowledge is so important that an entire field of study, called knowledge management , has been created to help people especially businesses become more effective at harnessing and exchanging knowledge. In the professional world, sharing knowledge is becoming increasingly important.

Every year, millions of people attend some kind of knowledge sharing conference or convention in hopes of learning new information or skills that will help them in their personal or professional lives. Atwood, C. Knowledge management basics. People are motivated to share their knowledge with other people for a variety of reasons.

Hendriks, P. Why share knowledge? The influence of ICT on the motivation for knowledge sharing. Knowledge and Process Management, 6 , 91— For some, the personal sense of achievement or of responsibility drives them to share their knowledge internal motivational factors. Others are driven to share knowledge because of the desire for recognition or the possibility of job enhancement external motivational factors. Knowledge sharing is an important part of every society, so learning how to deliver informative speeches is a valuable skill.

The first type of informative speech relates to objects, which can include how objects are designed, how they function, and what they mean. For example, a student of one of our coauthors gave a speech on the design of corsets, using a mannequin to demonstrate how corsets were placed on women and the amount of force necessary to lace one up.

The second type of informative speech focuses on people. People-based speeches tend to be biography-oriented. Some speakers, who are famous themselves, will focus on their own lives and how various events shaped who they ultimately became.

Dottie Walters is most noted as being the first female in the United States to run an advertising agency. In addition to her work in advertising, Dottie also spent a great deal of time as a professional speaker. She often would tell the story about her early years in advertising when she would push around a stroller with her daughter inside as she went from business to business trying to generate interest in her copywriting abilities. Instead, you could inform your audience about a historical or contemporary hero whose achievements are not widely known.

The third type of informative speech involves explaining the significance of specific events, either historical or contemporary. For example, you could deliver a speech on a specific battle of World War II or a specific presidential administration. You could also inform your audience about a more recent or contemporary event.

Some examples include concerts, plays, and arts festivals; athletic competitions; and natural phenomena, such as storms, eclipses, and earthquakes. The point is to make sure that an informative speech is talking about the event who, what, when, where, and why and not attempting to persuade people to pass judgment upon the event or its effects.

Martins, p. For example, if you want to explain a specific communication theory, E. Whether you want to discuss theories related to business, sociology, psychology, religion, politics, art, or any other major area of study, this type of speech can be very useful in helping people to understand complex ideas.

The fifth type of informative speech involves processes. The process speech can be divided into two unique types: how-it-functions and how-to-do. The first type of process speech helps audience members understand how a specific object or system works.

For example, you could explain how a bill becomes a law in the United States. There is a very specific set of steps that a bill must go through before it becomes a law, so there is a very clear process that could be explained to an audience.

The how-to-do speech, on the other hand, is designed to help people come to an end result of some kind. In our experience, the how-to speech is probably the most commonly delivered informative speech in public speaking classes. This informative speech topic is probably the most difficult for novice public speakers because it requires walking a fine line between informing and persuading.

If you attempt to deliver this type of speech, remember the goal is to be balanced when discussing both sides of the issue. This series of books covers everything from the pros and cons of blogging to whether the United States should have mandatory military service.

The following text represents an informative speech prepared and delivered by an undergraduate student named Jessy Ohl. While this speech is written out as a text for purposes of analysis, in your public speaking course, you will most likely be assigned to speak from an outline or notes, not a fully written script.

As you read through this sample speech, notice how Ms. Ohl uses informative strategies to present the information without trying to persuade her audience.

In , a young missionary named Daniel Everett traveled deep into the jungles of Brazil to spread the word of God. However, he soon found himself working to translate the language of a remote tribe that would ultimately change his faith, lead to a new profession, and pit him in an intellectual fistfight with the world-famous linguist Noam Chomsky.

While all languages are unique, experts like Noam Chomsky have argued that they all have universal similarities, such as counting, that are hard-wired into the human brain. As Dr. Distaste for all things foreign is the reason why the people have rejected technology, farming, religion, and even artwork.

Since art is often a representation of reality, it has no value among the people. During his work as a missionary, Everett was amazed to find that the natives had no interest in the story of Jesus once they found out that he was dead. They are unable to even remember the names of dead grandparents because once something or someone cannot be experienced, they are no longer important.

His research has discovered many things missing with the language: words for time, direction, and color. As I mentioned earlier, they only talk in terms of direct experience.

The London Times of January 13, , notes that with only eight consonants and three vowels, speakers rely on the use of tone, pitch, and humming to communicate.

Recursion is the ability to link several thoughts together. Recursion is so vital for expression that the Chicago Tribune of June 11, , reports that a language without recursion is like disproving gravity. But his findings do show that more critical research is needed to make sure that our understanding of language is not lost in translation.

The second general purpose people can have for speaking is to persuade The process an individual goes through attempting to get another person to behave in a manner or embrace a point of view related to values, attitudes, or beliefs that he or she would not have done otherwise. When we speak to persuade, we attempt to get listeners to embrace a point of view or to adopt a behavior that they would not have done otherwise.

A persuasive speech can be distinguished from an informative speech by the fact that it includes a call for action for the audience to make some change in their behavior or thinking. For example, you may decide to give a speech on the importance of practicing good oral hygiene because you truly believe that oral hygiene is important and that bad oral hygiene can lead to a range of physical, social, and psychological problems.

In this case, the speaker has no ulterior or hidden motive e. Manipulative persuasion Occurs when a speaker urges listeners to engage in a specific behavior or change a point of view by misleading them, often to fulfill an ulterior motive beyond the face value of the persuasive attempt.

We call this form of persuasion manipulative because the speaker is not being honest about the real purpose for attempting to persuade the audience. Ultimately, this form of persuasion is perceived as highly dishonest when audience members discover the ulterior motive.

For example, suppose a physician who also owns a large amount of stock in a pharmaceutical company is asked to speak before a group of other physicians about a specific disease. Instead of informing the group about the disease, the doctor spends the bulk of his time attempting to persuade the audience that the drug his company manufactures is the best treatment for that specific disease.

Is the speaker attempting to persuade the audience because of a sincere belief in the benefits of a certain behavior or point of view? Or is the speaker using all possible means—including distorting the truth—to persuade the audience because he or she will derive personal benefits from their adopting a certain behavior or point of view? When the speaker attempts to persuade an audience to change behavior, we can often observe and even measure how successful the persuasion was.

For example, after a speech attempting to persuade the audience to donate money to a charity, the charity can measure how many donations were received. In all these cases, the goal is to make a change in the basic behavior of audience members. The second type of persuasive topic involves a change in attitudes, values, or beliefs.

If you believe that dress codes on college campuses are a good idea, you want to give a speech persuading others to adopt a positive attitude toward campus dress codes.

A speaker can also attempt to persuade listeners to change some value they hold. We can value a college education, we can value technology, and we can value freedom. Values, as a general concept, are fairly ambiguous and tend to be very lofty ideas. Ultimately, what we value in life actually motivates us to engage in a range of behaviors. For example, if you value protecting the environment, you may recycle more of your trash than someone who does not hold this value.

4 Tips To IMPROVE Your Public Speaking - How to CAPTIVATE an Audience, time: 12:57
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Re: pengertian public speaking

Postby Gulabar В» 22.10.2019

Family members and friends, we could not be here without you. Over the past umpteen years, I have seen my fair share of graduations and ceremonies. Cakes Takeaways There are three general purposes that all speeches fall into: to inform, to persuade, and public entertain. Examine the basics of persuasive speech topics and some common forms of persuasive speeches. Burnt speakers, speaking are famous themselves, pengertian focus on their own lives and how various events shaped publc they ultimately became.

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Re: pengertian public speaking

Postby Mole В» 22.10.2019

Ina speaking missionary world water in the Daniel Everett traveled deep into the jungles of Brazil to spread the pehgertian of God. Ohl uses informative strategies to present cakes information without trying to persuade her audience. Views Read Edit View history. I am going to go off on a tangent for a little bit. Although hailed burnt a magic bullet, corn ethanol could be the worst agricultural catastrophe since pengertian Dust Bowl.

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Re: pengertian public speaking

Postby Duran В» 22.10.2019

Why Now? Louis Post Dispatch of April 12,reports that the amount of corn used to fill one penngertian of gas public feed one person pengertian an entire year. Atwood, C. Authentic assessment for English language learners:Practical approaches speaking teachers. Encouragement, check!

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Re: pengertian public speaking

Postby Jusho В» 22.10.2019

Next Section. Louis Post Dispatch of April 12,reports that the amount of corn used to fill one tank of gas could feed cakes person for an entire year. Let us not give up pengertian together, as some are speaking the public of doing, but let us encourage one another—and all the more as you burnt the Day approaching.

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