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London's Underground languages

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Take underground

Postby Mobei В» 25.03.2020

.

This site uses cookies to improve your experience and deliver personalised advertising. You can opt out at any time or find out more by reading our cookie policy. Want a quick digital detox? In London, all you need to do is take the Tube.

But why does London have much worse connectivity than most other public transport systems below ground? And why is there zero phone connectivity?

New York has had fast and reliable Wi-Fi since — admittedly only at stations, but to make up for that the Metro system also has 4G, while the carriages at least have Bluetooth beacons that provide arrival times to customers using the MYmta app.

Rome has excellent Wi-Fi service on most of its lines. Tokyo, Barcelona, Hong Kong and Melbourne all provide connectivity in tunnels. In South Korea, Seoul has even been trialling connectivity using the mmWave spectrum, which is expected to be a key part of next-generation 5G networks.

First is cost. To install it, individual access points have to be placed within the station ceiling or hidden in voids, with flat antennas providing the signal. In tunnels, the process is much more difficult. Some sections of the Tube are more than years old and its tunnels very narrow, which means there is little space to install any extra equipment. Wi-Fi uses radio waves, which work great when they can move in a straight line and have plenty of space say, up to and down from a satellite, or through your living room.

But they run into trouble when they hit solid matter. To deliver mobile connectivity on, say, the Northern Line, TfL would have to install an enormous number of access points — which is both uneconomical because of the cost of equipment, and unreliable as it will be tricky to maintain all these access points in such a confined space, says Griffin. Well, Moscow for its part, uses a Wi-Fi signal with high frequency radio waves that provide high data rates. Also in Moscow, the Wi-Fi repeaters are not in tunnels but on trains.

The signal arrives through antennas on the outside, which increase the height of trains by three to five centimetres and effectively decrease the distance between the train and the tunnel to the right in the direction of movement by 30 to 40cm.

Access points are managed by autonomous 'controllers', two small instrument in the back and at the front of each train that are linked by cables. The train network data is transmitted to base stations via a train-tunnel radio channel, says a spokesperson of the Wi-Fi provider MaximaTelecom. Installing Wi-Fi on the Moscow underground was neither easy nor cheap. The Moscow Department of Transport and the Moscow Metro worked with MaximaTelecom to equip the systems across the whole kilometres of tunnels snaking below the Russian capital.

To get some return on this huge investment, the operator forces users to watch a minute of unskippable adverts before connecting unless they switch to the ads-free premium option. The alternative is to use the cellular network, which offers fair to good connectivity in most tunnels.

Blame physics. The lower the frequency, the further a signal will travel through the cable. Tube tunnels vary in length between stations, but the vast majority are in the 1km range. As some Tube lines run all through the night during weekends, any fault would have to wait until Monday morning to be fixed. TfL found that for more than 80 per cent of tunnels it would be possible to provide full coverage using frequencies from MHz through to MHz.

Most parts of the network could be be covered by MHz base stations, while a couple of sections would need some additional equipment to make it work. That effectively rules out Wi-Fi, which requires a signal at MHz. On the upside, the tests showed that it would be feasible to deliver a mobile phone signal even in the most challenging parts of the network, says Griffin. Last year, TfL shortlisted four telecoms firms bidding for the contract. By early , some lines in central London may be offering 4G connectivity for voice signals.

A train carriage is just like a big Faraday cage, which blocks or at least weakens electromagnetic signals, including 4G radio waves. If 4G is used from train to track, there will be an additional challenge: if passengers can access the 4G service directly, then the network operator will be unable to control the bandwidth they use. Just a few passengers trying to stream Netflix could overwhelm the service, says Osborne.

But TfL disagrees, saying that all passengers are expected to have good 4G experience on the Tube, based on trials. By James O'Malley. By Stephen Armstrong. By Roger Highfield. The best Wi-Fi extenders and mesh Wi-Fi routers. The climate crisis will make entire cities uninhabitable. It's time to head underground. We can't switch to zero-carbon energy without nuclear power.

By Roger Highfield Physics 03 Jul

HITHOUSE - Jack To The Sound of The Underground, time: 7:54
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Re: take underground

Postby Daizshura В» 25.03.2020

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Re: take underground

Postby Tojacage В» 25.03.2020

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Re: take underground

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Re: take underground

Postby Mautaur В» 25.03.2020

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Re: take underground

Postby Kajigor В» 25.03.2020

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Re: take underground

Postby Muzragore В» 25.03.2020

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Postby Kazit В» 25.03.2020

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Re: take underground

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